Three No-Cost Ideas for Starting Out as a Freelancer

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The wife and I were at lunch when our waiter introduced himself. Right away, I noticed his golden voice. I asked if he was a student and what his aspirations were. He had left college for personal reasons but wanted to be a voice actor. He had no idea how to go about achieving this. Even from my students, I hear a lot of inquiries of how to get started as a freelancer and jumpstart their careers. Here are three tips for getting started in freelancing at no cost to yourself!

BUILD YOUR SOCIAL MEDIA CIRCLE

Having social media profiles is no new thing but are you using them professionally? Social media can be a powerful tool for marketing yourself. However, you need to begin thinking of yourself as a brand. Is your existing social media reflective of how you want to sell yourself? Probably not. Rather than painstakingly adjust your current online presence, create a new one. Start from scratch and shape each aspect of how you will be presented.

You need to begin with one email that can be used to create all the other profiles. This email could also serve as your primary contact. I recommend using Gmail since many services since you get a Youtube account and access to Google’s services (Drive, Docs, Calendar, etc.). Begin using this email to register for all the other websites and social media profiles.

A Facebook Page and Twitter will be great ways to publish your work, update people on your current projects, and socialize with followers. Starting a WordPress blog lets you both write on your current projects, your related interests and thoughts, and even create hub for all your other profiles. A Youtube and/or Soundcloud profile will let you upload and showcase your audio/visual work for potential clients.

With an online presence established, start publishing! Even when you’re not getting work, talk about your topic and become a source of information on it. This will help build yourself as a professional in your field. Find the message boards and other online discussion groups where other professionals meet and join the conversation. Do everything to put yourself out there.

FINDING FREE EQUIPMENT

Equipment is expensive. Professional media equipment easily costs thousands if not tens of thousands of dollars. The problem I’ve seen too many times are novice freelancers maxing out credit cards to get the toys but not knowing what’s next. Finding no gigs, they’ve put themselves in debt. If you are just starting out, then accept that better equipment must be earned.

“That’s all fine and good,” you say, “but how am I supposed to do anything with no equipment!”

Take an inventory. Chances are, you have a computer and a smartphone. That’s ok. Use what you have. Smartphones may not be professional equipment but you can still make a professional product with them. Check out my Smartphone Storytelling series! With just a smartphone and computer you could easily put together a commercial for a small business, a video for a church, and many other smaller gigs.

If you know anyone doing media, especially as a freelancer, see if they have any older equipment they don’t mind parting with. Through my early work, I managed to nab all kinds of gear, including an audio mixer and a lens for my DSLR. Get whatever you can and as you gain profit begin upgrading your tools.

Software is perhaps the easiest to get. Plan on doing audio recording/editing? Try Audacity, a free audio editor comparable to Adobe Audition. Need something to edit photos? How about GIMP, a free photo editor comparable to Photoshop. Animation and graphics? Blender. Video editing? Davinci Resolve. Even legal document templates are available online to help you create your contract (which you will need). Just start searching!

GET IN THE GAME

To start freelancing you need start doing it! There are many free online marketplaces to tap into that will put you right in the game. The basic plan on GigSalad allows potential clients to find you. Fiverr lets you create a job that you will do for $5 and other higher cost premium jobs.

To be more proactive, you could also look for opportunities on Craigslist and similar websites. These sites consistently have opportunities for freelancers. Indie filmmakers are always looking for casts and crews. Startup businesses have needs for photographers, media performers, and other roles. Seeking them out can help you choose the gigs that work best within your schedule and abilities.

Finally, if you are truly just starting out, you probably have no experience or any samples of your work. This makes it hard to get a paid gig. So forget about the money. Do pro bono. Many non-profits, churches, or small businesses have a need for media work but neither the resources or personel to do it. This approach allows you to help support a cause or business you favor. Additionally, its an easy way to build that portfolio when starting out.

Don’t be discouraged to start small and work up from there. You have to crawl before you run.

Freelancing isn’t for anyone. It takes a lot of work! However, you won’t get anything accomplished unless you try. Using no-cost strategies, you can test the waters before diving in and possibly getting in over your head. So go ahead! Get started!

Four Lessons From A First Year Faculty

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After over a decade in media and journalism, I began a career teaching higher ed. Having come from the professional field, I was not familiar with the world of academia beyond my experience as a student. I knew God put me in the right place but I had many misconceptions and lessons to be learned. Here are just some brief notes on things I learned the hard way.

ITS NOT JUST ABOUT TEACHING

Higher education is about far more than teaching. My fantasy vision of effortlessly imparting my wisdom on the future generation of journalists was quickly overshadowed by the behind-the-scenes of course preparation, constant meetings, recruiting efforts, official and unofficial advising, grading, office hours, course text review, networking, professional development,  emailing, and other side activities. I would say only about 1/4 of my work is actually in the classroom and just as much goes home with me. Don’t read this as a complaint but rather the realization of what “teaching” actually is. It’s all very necessary for both the growth of the students and yourself.

When all of it hits you, there comes a sudden realization how beautifully complicated it all is. Similar to putting on a news show, there are so many elements worked on that must come together for that one moment, the classroom. When it goes poorly, you can see all the little missteps that went into it and hopefully learn from it. When it goes well, you can see all the little efforts that came together to generate the lightbulb in your students’ minds. That one brief moment is what makes it all worth it.

I CANT BE EVERYTHING TO EVERYONE

I was grading the midterm exams and turned into a complete mess. My confidence was zapped and I felt like a loser. A handful of students failed the exam. Frustrated, I took it personally and believed it to be my fault, somehow. Did I make it too hard? Did I not prepare my lessons well? Was there some magical technique that the senior faculty knew that I didn’t? I’m a terrible teacher, I thought.

Similarly, I had some students clearly show disdain towards me and my courses. I even got some negative comments on student reviews! Was I not nice and friendly? Some of those comments aren’t even true so what must I have done to be picked on? Is my teaching boring and worthless? I’m a terrible teacher, I thought again.

So I realized I’m not perfect. And after some reflection and mentoring, I realized neither are my students. Its easy to feel like the classroom of students are homogeneous but that can’t be further from the truth. I’ve got every shade of the rainbow in my classes and each student is an individual. No matter how passionate I am about the material, some students simply will not care. Some students have not learned great studying habits. Some are taking the class just to complete an elective. Some students think my stories are lame and my lectures boring. Some think they know better than me. Some students have personalities that don’t mesh well with mine.

I cannot be everything for everyone. I have to accept that. I am responsible for what I bring as a teacher but not what my students bring. You can bring a horse to water but can’t make it drink. With that, I am called to Christ-likeness and love them equally.

TALK TO EVERYONE

One of the things I love about journalism is what I learn from other people. I love listening to people’s experiences. I always find something I can take with me.

Any university is going to have a sizable staff that have a wealth of experience covering a wealth of topics. Taking the time to know my colleagues across campus opens my eyes to new teaching methods, resources, time management strategies, opportunities, and more. Teaching at a Christian university, I can hear how a business professor is incorporating the Bible into his lectures and adopt it myself. An English professor can share her favorite tool for helping with citation formatting. Going beyond my circle introduces me to new ideas I’d never have thought of.

I also learned to spend plenty of time with non-teaching staff, as well. I gain lots of insights into campus culture and activities by building relationships with secretaries, admission counselors, and even the food service employees. The added benefit of all this is I make plenty of friends to brighten my day!

IM JUST AS MUCH A STUDENT

I adopted a text on journalism and social media which had been published a year prior. It had some fresh ideas but I was surprised to see some of its strategies were already outdated. How could something so new already feel old? I might as well ask myself that question. Only a year out of the news business and some of what I know is already stale.

To be a great teacher, I have to be a great student. I constantly find myself trying to tap into the media vein. Furthermore, I need to study comprehensively various strategies, resources, and industry changes. Its like taking a world religions class where you are learning multiple, often conflicting beliefs.

Almost every free minute I get, I am reading and watching informative media, conversing with professionals, and consuming as much information relevant to my field, as possible. Take it as either exhausting or exhilarating but there is no end for the life-long learner.

A year under my belt. earning my red badge of courage, I find myself just as new as I did last fall. I believe that it will always be the case. While the task may be the same, every year will bring its own challenges, rewards, and lessons to be learned. I am grateful for the opportunity to be an educator. I am a pioneer on an unending quest of discovery.

Wagging the Dog: How Online Audiences are Changing the Landscape of News

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The Internet is no new thing. Its common use has been around for well over twenty years. Yet, while the mediums of print, radio, and TV remain largely unchanged, the ever-shifting sands of the Internet daily present new opportunities for news organizations. Unlike the static journalism in traditional media, online audiences are able to join the conversation with journalists and, thus, affect the message.

Online news manifests near limitless potentials for the engagement of audiences and audiences engaging journalists. Where journalists once told stories, their role is transforming to becoming facilitators of discussion. Through online journalism, the audience is now becoming the story-tellers.

The redefining of both journalism and journalists spurs the need for increased research into the developing dynamic between news organizations and their audiences. Studying this evolution creates a challenge akin to charting a land in constant flux.

My research seeks to examine the how often consumers of online news become producers of online news. The core of the study is a quantitative online survey regarding online news consumption and production. The survey is augmented by previous research focused on similar analysis of online news and audiences.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Researching online news audiences potential to become engaged with stories must look at three levels of engagement. I call them the three P’s: Propagation, Production, and Participation. Propagation is the consumer who is commenting, sharing, liking, retweeting, etc. news stories. Production is the consumer who adds to a story through original content; such as blogs, photos/videos, or other forms of citizen journalism. Participation includes audiences who consume online news but engage in civic participation either online or offline; those who go beyond adding to the story but become part of the story itself.

PROPOGATION

In recent years, there is a growing realization that the propagation of a local news story can have a butterfly effect. A relatively small event can suddenly gain a global audience. Recent years are rife with examples of how online news audiences took part in raising awareness of issues.

A case in Germany was central in a study of the exponential growth in propagating news. The researchers discovered how Twitter’s hashtag system facilitated an isolated discussion into a national debate (Maireder & Schlogl, 2014). Researchers identify that the structure of social media allowed for rapid growth. The overlap of users participations in online homogenous clusters spread the story to new audiences, who in turn propagated it further.

An anthropological study of the 2014 Michael Brown shooting in Ferguson, MO further analyzed how social media infrastructures foster the consumption and propagation of news stories (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). This study recognizes how the hashtag #ferguson brought several voices to the discussion. While this correlated to the case study in Germany, Bonilla and Rosa note that propagation through hashtags and similar index systems potentially limit the conversation to exclusively indexed tweets or comments, offering only a slice of a larger discussion.

The Arab Spring in 2011 was a watershed moment for online news. A study of local Iraqi Arab Spring youtube videos had gained a surprisingly high viewership in both the US and Canada (Al-Rawi, 2014). Viewership data showed that North American audiences ranked 2nd to the local Iraqi audiences. The study demonstrated that online news can garner major traction beyond the intended audiences.

The research shows online audiences can propagate a news story faster and more efficiently than offline media audiences. While Twitter is a leading venue for news propagation, the previous research doesn’t begin to examine how news is being spread through alternate social media (like Facebook or Google+), comments on message boards, emails, and other online platforms.

PRODUCTION

Traditional news media has always faced the challenge of creating local content that audiences will care about. Audience fragmentation has created a demand for greater diversity in news stories and hyper-localization (Maier, 2010). While online news fills that role, consumers want deeper coverage. Through online venues, consumers are beginning to produce content to fill the gaps in reporting.

Whether creating news content or submitting original content to news organizations, citizen journalism is becoming more established. As of 2014, the Pew Research Center found that 7% of US adults are producing user-generated content with another 7% submit their content to news organizations (Olmstead,Mitchell, Holcomb, & Vogt, 2014). Contrasting this with international findings, a study was performed in Sweden that found citizen journalism is on decline; with comments and blog links becoming less frequent (Karlsson, Bergstrom, Clerwall, & Fast, 2015). The Swedish study admits shortcomings as it largely deals with blogging and surveyed only Swedish participants. Ultimately, the findings in the Swedish research rings false. The Pew Research Center conducted a study in 2012 that found 39% of the top news videos on Youtube were user-generated content (Pew Research Center Journalism & Media Staff, 2012).

PARTICIPATION

If the purpose of journalism is to create a better informed public than an audience that engages in civic participation must be its fruition of that purpose. Compared to traditional media, a study found that online news consumers are more likely to join in civic engagement and political participation (Bachmann & Zuniga, 2015). The authors of this saw online news audiences’ capability to propagate and create content fostered a positive climate for civic participation.

An earlier study compared and contrasted professional and citizen journalism’s audiences likelihood of civic engagement. Two interesting findings was that citizen journalism fosters online civic participation and that consumers with a higher trust in citizen journalism are more likely to participate in politics (Kaufhold, Valenzuela, & Zuniga, 2010). This supports the idea that online news audiences are more likely to engage civically and politically.

One of the best events to study the relationship between online news audiences and their level of civic participation is the Arab Spring of 2011. In contrast to the past articles, a study in 2013 strived to prove that political context precedes social media use, trivializing social media’s role in engagement (Wolfsfeld, Segev, & Sheafer, 2013). I considered this study flawed and the conclusion moot. Of course the political or civic event will precede social media use. Until the event has begun, there is nothing to really share or discuss. The study should have focused on examining the level of participation after social media use. If the previous studies offer any truth, each progressive political event should see larger amounts of participation due to preceding social media use.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Audiences of online news move beyond being mere consumers through propagation, production, and/or participation. Through taking an active role in journalism, the consumers become producers themselves. Previous studies usually limited research towards specific contexts or audience activities. Hoping to gain insight into the audience’s roles in creating content, I created a survey to examine online news consumers’ contributions to news stories. My research question is, “How frequently are online news consumers participating in journalism?”

METHODOLOGY

To answer this question, I conducted a survey utilizing the website, kwiksurveys.com. This was beneficial as it was easy to use, offered many report options, and was free of cost. All of this made it an effective tool for conducting online quantitative research.

While designing the survey, my independent variable was consumption of online news. The dependent variables were propagation of online news, production of online news, and civic participation. While the survey only included a single straight forward inquiry about participation in civic engagement, multiple questions were used to measure participants’ levels of propagation and production of online news content.

The survey was constructed with 15 questions. Of the 15, four served as demographic questions and the remainder related to determining online news consumption patterns. These questions included inquiries about viewing habits, likelihood of interactions with news content, viability of creating news content, and the likelihood of participating in civic engagement. I pretested the questionnaire by doing the survey, myself, and removing my results from the data.

To recruit my candidates, I utilized two online social circles. My first pool of potential participants was my email contacts at Oklahoma Baptist University. This was comprised of approximately 40 college-age students. An email was sent asking for volunteers to complete the survey. The second contact group was via my near 100 Facebook contacts. The majority of those contacts are between the ages of 30-60. Of those two groups, I had 28 participants respond to the survey.

RESEARCH RESULTS

The initial four questions of the survey asked about gender, age, education, and income level. 54% of the respondents were female, with the remaining 46% being male. At 39%, the majority of the participants were between the ages of 18-24 with 55+ being the second largest age demographic, at 18%. The highest education level completed by the bulk respondents, at 46%, was a Highschool Diploma but the remaining 54%, as a whole, had earned some degree of higher education. The annual household incomes of the participants was split evenly with 50% making less than $50,000 and 50% making more than $50,000.

50% of the survey’s participants indicated their primary online news source is a professional media website, such as CNN.com or BBC.com (See Figure 1). Social media was used by 36%. The remaining 14% comprised of apps, citizen journalism, or no response. Regardless of news source, the participants indicated their preference for national and local news at 39% and 37%, respectively (See Figure 2). The rest of the respondents prefered to view topical news, such as sports or entertainment. 89% of the particpants also indicated some likelihood of seeking deeper coverage by watching embedded videos or clicking links to related subject matter.

Figure 1

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Figure 2

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When asked about additional viewing habits, 76% answered they view online news at least once a day with 36% of the total respondents specifying they view more twice a day. The participants were equally divided when asked what device they viewed online news on. 50% utilized PCs and 50% used a mobile device.

The surveyed online news audiences indicated a higher amount will share online news content than will post online comments about it. 61% of the participants said they would, at some level, share the online news content compared to 29% who answered they would post comments on the news stories (See Figure 3). Of that 29%, only one participant indicated they would comment on news content but not propagate it with others.

Figure 3

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In regards to viewing online news on social media, 50% of the respondents favored Facebook, making it the top choice (See Figure 4). The second largest majority, at 29%, used Twitter. Beyond 11% indicating no use of social media for news, the remaining participants indicated using other social media platforms.

Figure 4

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Participants were asked if they created any user-generated news content, such as blogging, taking photos, or shooting video. In addition, they were asked if they ever had online discussions about online news content. 68% responded they do not produce any content or engage in any online disucssions (See Figure 5). The remaining 32% indicated they do take part in creating original online news content and discussing news online.

Figure 5

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The final question asked online news audiences of their level of civic engagement. 54% indicated some level of civic participation with 46% saying they do not. Only one participatn responded they frequently participate with the remainder of the 54% responding they only participate sometimes.

RESEARCH DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

Reviewing the results, there was a significant amount of journalistic participation by the online news consumers. Almost two-thirds of the respondents were active, at some level, in propagating news stories. Nearly a third, were engaged in online news content production or discussions of news stories. Over half the respondents participated in civc engagement. In totality, the results show that this group of online news consumers is very active in contributing to online journalism. The

In comparison to previous articles on the propagation of news, the survey results correlated to findings of how news stories rapidly spread. With 61% of the respondents sharing online content, news stories dramatically increase in viewership due to the high-level of propagation found among online news consumers.

According to the 2014 State of the Media by the Pew Research Center ((Olmstead,Mitchell, Holcomb, & Vogt, 2014), 14% of US adults either post user-generated content or submit to news organizations. My research indicated online news content production by 29% of the participants. With the majority of the respondents being 18-24, it stands to reason that younger online news audiences are more likely to produce original news content.

This study’s primary shortcoming is the participation pool was small and did not accurately reflect current US census data. In addition, the survey was limited to broad definitions of online news consumption and participation. Further research would need to provide a more in-depth analysis to establish a better cross-section of how online news consumers participate in journalism. I believe this is absolutely needed as previous studies only look at individual elements of audiences’ engagement rather than the totality of their behavior.

In conclusion, I found that online news audiences are very engaged with the product. Whether through sharing, creating content, or being motivated to participate, online news viewers show they are capable of more than just consuming. In correlation with past research, my study shows news organizations need to go beyond talking to their viewers and strive to talk with them. The consumers are increasingly becoming the producers and journalism is becoming more open-source.

Referernces

Maireder, A., Schlogl, S. (2014). 24 Hours of an #outcry: The Networked Publics of a Socio-Political Debate. European Journal of Communication, 29(6), 687-702.

Bonilla, Yarimar., Rosa, Jonathan. (2015). #Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist. 42 (1). 4-17.

Al-Rawi, A. (2014). The Arab Spring and Online Protests in Iraq. International Journal of Communication, 8(2014), 916-942.

Maier, S. (2010). All the News Fit to Post? Comparing News Content on the Web to Newspapers, Television, and Radio. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87(3-4), 548-562

Olmstead, Kenneth., Mitchell, Amy., Holcomb, Jesse., Vogt, Nancy. (2014). News Video on the Web: The Audience for Digital News Videos. The Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media. 26 March 2014. Web. 3 April 2015. http://www.journalism.org/2014/03/26/the-audience-for-digital-news-videos/

Karlsson, Michael. Bergstrom, Annika., Clerwall, Christer., Fast, Karin. (2015). Participatory journalism – the (r)evolution that wasn’t. Content and user behavior in Sweden 2007-2013. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff. (2012). Youtube & News. The Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media. 16 July 2012. Web. 3 April 2015. http://www.journalism.org/2012/07/16/youtube-news/

Bachmann, I., Zuniga, H. (2013). News Platform Preference as a Predictor of Political and Civic Participation. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(4), 496-512.

Kaufhold, K., Valenuela, S., Zuniga, Homero. (2010). Citizen Journalism and Democracy: How User-Generated News Use Relates to Political Knowledge and Participation. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87(3-4), 515-529

Wolfsfeld, G., Segev, Elad., Sheafer, T. (2013). Social Media and the Arab Spring: Politics Comes First. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 115-137.

The Maddening State of News Media

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“Meaningless! Meaningless! Utterly Meaningless! Everything is Meaningless!” So begins the book of Ecclesiastes and my assesment of the current state of the news media. With over a decade in journalism and mass communication, I find that genuine journalism is slowly being strangled by the very organizations dedicated to it. I’m not alone. A recent USA Today/CNN/Gallup poll indicates only 36% of Americans believe the media is accurate. In 1999, 125 senior journalists were polled. 70% of the respondents felt more negatively about most news organizations (Daily Source). What could lead to such ill-favor? “For the love of money is the root of all kinds of evil.” 1 Timothy 6:10. News has always been plagued with walking the line between being a community service and making profit. After all, journalists have to eat. However, recent trends have tipped the scale for profit to drive the news.

Innovation and recent technology have made news more accessible than ever. However, this has led to a insane battle amongst news organizations to maintain ratings and revenue. The growth of 24-hour news networks turned a rat-race into something even worse. Air time was given to news pundits. Sensationalism and entertainment put in a suit and called a journalist. Bill O Reilly, Nancy Grace, Rush Limbaugh and many others drew in ratings and money. This has now become the state of 24-hour news networks. For example, MSNBC’s primetime schedule is entirely comprised of pundits (MSNBC). Where’s the news?

Newspapers aren’t above criticism either. The higher profit and effeciency of consolidation is why nearly 80% of all newspapers are owned by mult-newspaper chains. Does the public notice? Why, yes! A study by the American Society of Newspaper Editors revealed that 59% of Americans saw newspapers caring more about profit than public good (Daily Source).

The local news fairs no better. The poor local news station must not only battle rivals but also must contend with the audience shift towards online media. This has created an environment where short deadlines and late-breaking news trump logic and integrity. Its that very environment that incidents like the one at KTVU-TV occur. In 2013, an Asiana flight crashed in San Francisco, killing 3. The National Transportation Safety Board released the names of the four pilots on the flight. KTVU-TV, desparate to be first, bypassed any critical review and went on air. The names? Sum Ting Wong, Wi Tu Lo, Ho Li Fuk, and Bang Ding Ow (SF Gate). Better yet, justwatch it. While this may be an extreme example, journalism suffers when ratings and money drive it. My time in newsrooms saw daily lapses in thinking and integrity by both my own station and others. Too many times have I seen news directors push crews to get on-air with no confirmed info. I have been rushed to take the news vehicles out or go in the chopper to cover unconfirmed news, only to be returned later after discovering it to be a false alarm. The pressure to be live and late-breaking is felt by journalists everywhere. A study by the American Society of Newspaper Editors found that 34% of the surveyed journalists said the “rush to deadline,” was a major factor in mistakes. The remainder cited company issues with carelessness, inexperience, being overworked, and understaffed as primary reasons (Daily Source).

Confidence in the media has been shaken. In a Gallup poll, TV and print journalism have both dropped in public confidence by more than 10% in the past 10 years (Gallup). The studies show it. The public and many journalists know that the state of news media is profit-driven and sloppy. So why don’t more journalists make a stand against the system? Sadly, the answer is once again money. In the age of consolidation, either drink the company kool-aid or lose your job. Damned if you do. Damned if you don’t.

What I truly believe will bring about real change is the consumer’s response. In this fast-food diet world, consumers just simply don’t seem to care they are being malnourished with poor news. We know its bad for us. We can state it during a poll or survey. However, we continue to be consumers of the journalistic equivalent of a Big Mac. We simply don’t care. More people have viewed Gangam Style than the first US black president’s inauguration. That is the state of journalism. Its meaningless until consumers demand better. Its meaningless until news organizations prioritize community over profit. Its meaningless until journalists can pour themselves into telling good stories instead of making the deadline.

Sources:

Daily Source. (2014, September 17). Current Problems in the Media. Retrieved October 19, 2014 from http://www.dailysource.org/about/problems#.VERNy_nF-wl

MSNBC. MSNBC TV Schedule. Retrieved October 19, 2014 from http://www.msnbc.com/schedule

Matier. Ross. (2013, July 24). KTVU firings over airing of prank Asiana pilots’ names. Retrieved October 19th, 2014 from http://blog.sfgate.com/matierandross/2013/07/24/2074/

Dugan, Andrew. Americans Confidence in News Media Remains Low. Retrieved October 19th, 2014 from http://www.gallup.com/poll/171740/americans-confidence-news-media-remains-low.aspx