Four Lessons From A First Year Faculty

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After over a decade in media and journalism, I began a career teaching higher ed. Having come from the professional field, I was not familiar with the world of academia beyond my experience as a student. I knew God put me in the right place but I had many misconceptions and lessons to be learned. Here are just some brief notes on things I learned the hard way.

ITS NOT JUST ABOUT TEACHING

Higher education is about far more than teaching. My fantasy vision of effortlessly imparting my wisdom on the future generation of journalists was quickly overshadowed by the behind-the-scenes of course preparation, constant meetings, recruiting efforts, official and unofficial advising, grading, office hours, course text review, networking, professional development,  emailing, and other side activities. I would say only about 1/4 of my work is actually in the classroom and just as much goes home with me. Don’t read this as a complaint but rather the realization of what “teaching” actually is. It’s all very necessary for both the growth of the students and yourself.

When all of it hits you, there comes a sudden realization how beautifully complicated it all is. Similar to putting on a news show, there are so many elements worked on that must come together for that one moment, the classroom. When it goes poorly, you can see all the little missteps that went into it and hopefully learn from it. When it goes well, you can see all the little efforts that came together to generate the lightbulb in your students’ minds. That one brief moment is what makes it all worth it.

I CANT BE EVERYTHING TO EVERYONE

I was grading the midterm exams and turned into a complete mess. My confidence was zapped and I felt like a loser. A handful of students failed the exam. Frustrated, I took it personally and believed it to be my fault, somehow. Did I make it too hard? Did I not prepare my lessons well? Was there some magical technique that the senior faculty knew that I didn’t? I’m a terrible teacher, I thought.

Similarly, I had some students clearly show disdain towards me and my courses. I even got some negative comments on student reviews! Was I not nice and friendly? Some of those comments aren’t even true so what must I have done to be picked on? Is my teaching boring and worthless? I’m a terrible teacher, I thought again.

So I realized I’m not perfect. And after some reflection and mentoring, I realized neither are my students. Its easy to feel like the classroom of students are homogeneous but that can’t be further from the truth. I’ve got every shade of the rainbow in my classes and each student is an individual. No matter how passionate I am about the material, some students simply will not care. Some students have not learned great studying habits. Some are taking the class just to complete an elective. Some students think my stories are lame and my lectures boring. Some think they know better than me. Some students have personalities that don’t mesh well with mine.

I cannot be everything for everyone. I have to accept that. I am responsible for what I bring as a teacher but not what my students bring. You can bring a horse to water but can’t make it drink. With that, I am called to Christ-likeness and love them equally.

TALK TO EVERYONE

One of the things I love about journalism is what I learn from other people. I love listening to people’s experiences. I always find something I can take with me.

Any university is going to have a sizable staff that have a wealth of experience covering a wealth of topics. Taking the time to know my colleagues across campus opens my eyes to new teaching methods, resources, time management strategies, opportunities, and more. Teaching at a Christian university, I can hear how a business professor is incorporating the Bible into his lectures and adopt it myself. An English professor can share her favorite tool for helping with citation formatting. Going beyond my circle introduces me to new ideas I’d never have thought of.

I also learned to spend plenty of time with non-teaching staff, as well. I gain lots of insights into campus culture and activities by building relationships with secretaries, admission counselors, and even the food service employees. The added benefit of all this is I make plenty of friends to brighten my day!

IM JUST AS MUCH A STUDENT

I adopted a text on journalism and social media which had been published a year prior. It had some fresh ideas but I was surprised to see some of its strategies were already outdated. How could something so new already feel old? I might as well ask myself that question. Only a year out of the news business and some of what I know is already stale.

To be a great teacher, I have to be a great student. I constantly find myself trying to tap into the media vein. Furthermore, I need to study comprehensively various strategies, resources, and industry changes. Its like taking a world religions class where you are learning multiple, often conflicting beliefs.

Almost every free minute I get, I am reading and watching informative media, conversing with professionals, and consuming as much information relevant to my field, as possible. Take it as either exhausting or exhilarating but there is no end for the life-long learner.

A year under my belt. earning my red badge of courage, I find myself just as new as I did last fall. I believe that it will always be the case. While the task may be the same, every year will bring its own challenges, rewards, and lessons to be learned. I am grateful for the opportunity to be an educator. I am a pioneer on an unending quest of discovery.

Occupy the Corners OKC

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America is at a boiling point when it comes to issues of police and community violence. Law enforcement nation-wide are beginning to make changes towards increased transparency and stronger community relations. While much discussion has been centered around police reform, communities are recognizing the need to heal from within.

PREVENTING BALTIMORE IN OKLAHOMA CITY

In Oklahoma City, violent crimes plague the communities and create tension for the police. With crime rates well above the national average, residents of OKC are recognizing the need for change.

Violence in OKC

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Milton Combs, founder of the PEOPLE Foundation, has worked with the OKC chapter of the NAACP and the police’s Citizen Advisory Board towards ending violence in the city. He says that Oklahoma City communities will need to be proactive in changing their neighborhoods.

CEO of the PEOPLE Foundation

Milton Combs, CEO of the PEOPLE Foundation

“By doing forums. By having neighborhood meetings…By having the kinds of events where citizens can vent and they can also learn about what’s going on in their town to help police-community relations and then asking them to step up to the plate.”

This year, Combs and other community leaders have been involved in several such events. Back in March, the Oklahoma City NAACP and the non-profit, Ending Violence Everywhere, partnered with Oklahoma City police in their first ever Police and Community Trust Forum. The dialogue led to further discussions on how the community can work to decreasing crime.

Oklahoma City’s Rev. Jesse Jackson Jr. is starting a campaign modeled after Al Sharpton and the National Action Network’s “Occupy the Corners” project.

In the shadow of the state capitol, the neighborhood around NE 23rd and MLK suffers greatly from the violence Rev. Jackson and others rally against.

POLICE RESPOND TO FATAL SHOOTING IN NE OKLAHOMA CITY

MAN DEAD AFTER NORTHEAST OKC SHOOTING

On June 13th, nearly two dozen community leaders and residents met on the high-traffic, high-crime corner to advocate an end to gun violence.

Participants included pastors, non-profit organization leaders, NAACP members, and concerned residents. Speakers shared on the issues of violence in the community, how citizens can hold police accountable, and the need for deeper involvement. Rev. Jackson said this is all about doing the right thing.

“Our elderly people in our community deserve to feel safe. Our young people deserve to feel safe. We deserve to reclaim our neighborhoods as what they were, as what we remember.”

Looking forward, Rev. Jackson hopes support for “Occupy the Corners OKC” will grow. His ambition is to have multiple simultaneous rallies throughout Oklahoma City’s problem neighborhoods and begin a door-to-door outreach with their message.

“We’re here spreading love. We’re here saying that our lives matter. That your life has worth and that we need one another. We are the keepers of our brothers and sisters.”

Smartphone Storytelling: Be Church and Bring Church

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My 2nd entry in my series, “Smartphone Storytelling,” was made with the desire to tell a different kind of story from my previous one. I wanted to work on a NATS package and try to pull it off with only a phone and laptop.

The story of, “Be Church and Bring Church,” arose out of my own personal experiences with church planting and missions and my father’s work as a church planter catalyst for the North American Mission Board. I set out to shed light on the challenges faced by church planters and the lack of support by believers. The call to the Great Commission is shared by every Christian but it is the Church’s apathy that has led to many frustrations and failures.

The hardest part of any NATS package is making sure your interviews go correctly. Its like a house of cards. Without solid interviews, the whole thing collapses. Interviewing with a smartphone is a even more complicated than what most backpack journalists deal with. The constant camera shake and limitations of the phone are coupled with the already consuming effort of conducting an interview.

The first interview with John Draper had a lot of issues. Wanting a more relaxed backdrop, we went to a cafe. However, the cafe ground its own beans and caused a lot of noise. Smartphones have omnidirectional microphones which will pick up any background noise. While I want to limit myself to only a phone and computer, I did want to test out a magnetic mini tripod I purchased for $40. It holds the weight of my Galaxy S5 nicely and can stick to any magnetized metal surface. I toyed with it only in this interview and may occassionally utilize it in the future.

The interview with Elie had to be recorded with my computer as I was using my phone to interview the church planter. While using it, I realized the possibility of doing a two camera shoot when combining the two. Set the laptop up for a wide shot and go closer with the smartphone. Synchronize to one audio source. I don’t know. Something to play around with someday.

The smartphone proved to be an excellent candid camera when recording in the church service and in public. A larger set of equipment would have not allowed me to, as freely, move where I wanted to. Almost everyone ignored me and I was able to snag some decent shots. However, capturing the worship leaders on stage led to the struggle with the limited zoom ability on smartphones.

Overall, I feel that I was able to tell a compelling NATS package. Checking off audio storytelling on my list of to-do’s, I hope to do a very visually striking piece in the near future. Stay tuned!

Smartphone Storytelling: Preventing Baltimore in Oklahoma City

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This is the beginning of an ongoing series I call, “Smartphone Storytelling,” an exploration of how smartphones can play new roles in journalism. Throughout the series, I will limit myself strictly to a smartphone (Galaxy S5) and a laptop (Macbook Pro). I will not use tripods, external microphones, car mounts, or any accessories beyond the built-in features of these two devices (excluding charging and transfer cables). This allows me to work solely with the tools that even the average highshool student would have access to. My hopes is to discover new approaches towards how journalists can use these devices and encourage everyone that, should they have these two basic tools, they have all the power to make their voice heard around the world.

PREVENTING BALTIMORE IN OKLAHOMA CITY

The story I worked on is titled, “Preventing Baltimore in Oklahoma City.” Previously living in Baltimore, I currently reside in Oklahoma City. I was drawn to the coverage of April’s protests that shook Baltimore. Having seen police-involved deaths here in Oklahoma, I wanted to see what changes were being made and needed to be made to prevent the events of Baltimore from happening here. Speaking with both police and community leaders, I crafted my story. However, anyone in journalism can say how a story changes at a moment’s notice. One moment of breaking news drastically changed everything.

STORYTELLING WITH A SMARTPHONE

This story, being the first, was really meant to be with my technical comfort zone. I did not envision any difficult shots or recording challenges when I started. In fact, the work was made very easy as the phone served a critical part in the story’s development. I conducted research on my phone, made calls, used it’s GPS to get me to the various locations, monitored social media (which is how I discovered the in-custody death), logged my recordings, and was even considering downloading a police scanner app. The combination of the built-in features and apps allow for a great deal of innovation.

Both interior interviews were straightforward. I sat down, supported my elbows with the desktop, and held the phone with both hands (always shooting horizontally). I made sure both the interviews were in a quiet space. Smartphones ‘ microphones act omnidirectionally and will pick up a lot noise. It was imperative to get my phone very close to my subjects (3-4 feet). This shortcoming was what prevented me from getting any useful audio during the press talk by the police at the scene of the in-custody death. Having arrived in the middle of it, I couldn’t get any closer and kept at a distance that picked up too much traffic noise. Recording my own track was perhaps the easiest and I was happy with the quality of the recording.

Broll became considerable harder to film due to the lack of a worthwhile zoom on the camera. The phone did a satisfactory job in capturing wide shots but limited my angles and ability to focus on specific subjects. The medium shots of the police cars suffered both from quality and camera shake. This would be the primary reason why a smartphone would face challenges in reporting on sports and other stories that require the ability to zoom in on the action. To get those great closeups, you physically will need to get closer (which can’t always happen).

At many points in the story, I used video and pictures from other sources. A quick search of “Baltimore protests 2015″ under a creative commons filter on Youtube turned up solid video. I also got permission from Mr. Washington to use his videos and images on Facebook. Some online download tools, such as keepvid.com, allowed me to easily get what I needed. With just the one phone, I utilized my laptop’s camera to record my conversations with the OKC media. Additionally, I used Quicktime’s screen capture ability to get the broll of the OKC PD social media sites. All of it allowed me to have many more elements in crafting my story.

For this story, I can’t say I really pushed the boundaries of smartphone use. I did however demonstrate that a complex story can be told with simple tools. I look forward in future entries to have more opportunities to getting up close to subjects and seeing what I can really do.

Why the Digital Revolution Changes Nothing

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It was the French journalist, Alphonse Karr, who said “The more things change, the more they stay the same.” The advent of mobile technology and social media has both drastically altered the news business and also hardly changed it at all. A contradiction? No, it just depends on what you are examining. The relevance of these changes depend on whether you are speaking of the news organization or the journalist.

News organizations have had to adapt quickly to the era of the smartphone. People are engaging far differently with news content than ever before. According the American Press Institute, well over 70% of mobile device users utilize their devices for news consumption (API, 2014). News audiences are demanding immediacy from their news sources. The news organization must meet this growing demand with a vigilant online presence across multiple venues.

The news organization that creates content for traditional and digital audience benefits from increased viewership. While statistics demonstrate a large boost in digital audiences, the Pew Research Center shows healthy growth for broadcast news, as well (PRC, 2015). Local TV news has seen a 2-3% growth with national TV news growing by 2-5%. This data shows audiences are not choosing one media or the other but engaging news across a variety of platforms. News organizations that fully embrace their digital venues are seeing not only a larger audience but a more engaged audience.

Unlike ever before, audiences are more than just consumers but producers of the news. Whether they serve as news aggregators or even citizen journalists, audiences are now involved in the discussion alongside the reporters. Their added voices to the conversation is a double-edged sword. As stated previously, an engaged audience is certainly a boost for news organizations but that same audience creates an uncontrollable factor. The risk of a single bad tweet, a single inappropriate photo, a single piece of misinformation is ever present. Audiences are not bound to expectations of journalistic integrity. Additionally, the audience’s demand for immediacy dictates what journalists will cover and how it will be covered. News organizations now face the risks and challenges of engaging an audience who can talk back.

Yes, the things have changed. It seems as if the whole news world, for better or worse, has been turned on its head. My companion piece, Wagging the Dog, shows as much. However, the solution to all the challenges faced in this brave new digital world has always been known. Good journalism requires good journalists. In their book, “Advancing the Story: Journalism in a Multimedia World,” Debora Wenger and Deborah Potter write, “ As the technology used to manage the content becomes easier to navigate, multimedia journalism is likely to become less about knowing how to post a story or use a smartphone to capture video and more about the skills its takes to gather and present information that is relevant and compelling to an audience – regardless of whether that audience is watching, reading or interacting with the story.”

The role of a journalist has not and will not change. We are still expected to seek truth and report it, minimize harm, act independently, and be accountable and transparent (SPJ, 2014). The advances in technology and audience engagement complicate our roles and will require more effort. However, the responsibilities of a journalist will remain the same across time, technology, and culture.

References:

American Press Institute, 2014. “The Personal News Cycle: How Americans choose to get their news.” American Press Institute. 17 Mar, 2014. Web. 19, May, 2015.

Mitchell, A., 2015. “State of the News Media 2015.” The Pew Research Center. 29 Apr, 2015. Web. 19 May, 2015.

Wenger, Debora Halpern, and Deborah Potter. “The Multimedia Mind-set.” Advancing the Story: Journalism in a Multimedia World. Third ed. CQ, 2015. 11. Print.

SPJ, 2014. “SPJ Code of Ethics.” Society of Professional Journalists. 6 Sept, 2014. Web. 19 May, 2015

Wagging the Dog: How Online Audiences are Changing the Landscape of News

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The Internet is no new thing. Its common use has been around for well over twenty years. Yet, while the mediums of print, radio, and TV remain largely unchanged, the ever-shifting sands of the Internet daily present new opportunities for news organizations. Unlike the static journalism in traditional media, online audiences are able to join the conversation with journalists and, thus, affect the message.

Online news manifests near limitless potentials for the engagement of audiences and audiences engaging journalists. Where journalists once told stories, their role is transforming to becoming facilitators of discussion. Through online journalism, the audience is now becoming the story-tellers.

The redefining of both journalism and journalists spurs the need for increased research into the developing dynamic between news organizations and their audiences. Studying this evolution creates a challenge akin to charting a land in constant flux.

My research seeks to examine the how often consumers of online news become producers of online news. The core of the study is a quantitative online survey regarding online news consumption and production. The survey is augmented by previous research focused on similar analysis of online news and audiences.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Researching online news audiences potential to become engaged with stories must look at three levels of engagement. I call them the three P’s: Propagation, Production, and Participation. Propagation is the consumer who is commenting, sharing, liking, retweeting, etc. news stories. Production is the consumer who adds to a story through original content; such as blogs, photos/videos, or other forms of citizen journalism. Participation includes audiences who consume online news but engage in civic participation either online or offline; those who go beyond adding to the story but become part of the story itself.

PROPOGATION

In recent years, there is a growing realization that the propagation of a local news story can have a butterfly effect. A relatively small event can suddenly gain a global audience. Recent years are rife with examples of how online news audiences took part in raising awareness of issues.

A case in Germany was central in a study of the exponential growth in propagating news. The researchers discovered how Twitter’s hashtag system facilitated an isolated discussion into a national debate (Maireder & Schlogl, 2014). Researchers identify that the structure of social media allowed for rapid growth. The overlap of users participations in online homogenous clusters spread the story to new audiences, who in turn propagated it further.

An anthropological study of the 2014 Michael Brown shooting in Ferguson, MO further analyzed how social media infrastructures foster the consumption and propagation of news stories (Bonilla & Rosa, 2015). This study recognizes how the hashtag #ferguson brought several voices to the discussion. While this correlated to the case study in Germany, Bonilla and Rosa note that propagation through hashtags and similar index systems potentially limit the conversation to exclusively indexed tweets or comments, offering only a slice of a larger discussion.

The Arab Spring in 2011 was a watershed moment for online news. A study of local Iraqi Arab Spring youtube videos had gained a surprisingly high viewership in both the US and Canada (Al-Rawi, 2014). Viewership data showed that North American audiences ranked 2nd to the local Iraqi audiences. The study demonstrated that online news can garner major traction beyond the intended audiences.

The research shows online audiences can propagate a news story faster and more efficiently than offline media audiences. While Twitter is a leading venue for news propagation, the previous research doesn’t begin to examine how news is being spread through alternate social media (like Facebook or Google+), comments on message boards, emails, and other online platforms.

PRODUCTION

Traditional news media has always faced the challenge of creating local content that audiences will care about. Audience fragmentation has created a demand for greater diversity in news stories and hyper-localization (Maier, 2010). While online news fills that role, consumers want deeper coverage. Through online venues, consumers are beginning to produce content to fill the gaps in reporting.

Whether creating news content or submitting original content to news organizations, citizen journalism is becoming more established. As of 2014, the Pew Research Center found that 7% of US adults are producing user-generated content with another 7% submit their content to news organizations (Olmstead,Mitchell, Holcomb, & Vogt, 2014). Contrasting this with international findings, a study was performed in Sweden that found citizen journalism is on decline; with comments and blog links becoming less frequent (Karlsson, Bergstrom, Clerwall, & Fast, 2015). The Swedish study admits shortcomings as it largely deals with blogging and surveyed only Swedish participants. Ultimately, the findings in the Swedish research rings false. The Pew Research Center conducted a study in 2012 that found 39% of the top news videos on Youtube were user-generated content (Pew Research Center Journalism & Media Staff, 2012).

PARTICIPATION

If the purpose of journalism is to create a better informed public than an audience that engages in civic participation must be its fruition of that purpose. Compared to traditional media, a study found that online news consumers are more likely to join in civic engagement and political participation (Bachmann & Zuniga, 2015). The authors of this saw online news audiences’ capability to propagate and create content fostered a positive climate for civic participation.

An earlier study compared and contrasted professional and citizen journalism’s audiences likelihood of civic engagement. Two interesting findings was that citizen journalism fosters online civic participation and that consumers with a higher trust in citizen journalism are more likely to participate in politics (Kaufhold, Valenzuela, & Zuniga, 2010). This supports the idea that online news audiences are more likely to engage civically and politically.

One of the best events to study the relationship between online news audiences and their level of civic participation is the Arab Spring of 2011. In contrast to the past articles, a study in 2013 strived to prove that political context precedes social media use, trivializing social media’s role in engagement (Wolfsfeld, Segev, & Sheafer, 2013). I considered this study flawed and the conclusion moot. Of course the political or civic event will precede social media use. Until the event has begun, there is nothing to really share or discuss. The study should have focused on examining the level of participation after social media use. If the previous studies offer any truth, each progressive political event should see larger amounts of participation due to preceding social media use.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Audiences of online news move beyond being mere consumers through propagation, production, and/or participation. Through taking an active role in journalism, the consumers become producers themselves. Previous studies usually limited research towards specific contexts or audience activities. Hoping to gain insight into the audience’s roles in creating content, I created a survey to examine online news consumers’ contributions to news stories. My research question is, “How frequently are online news consumers participating in journalism?”

METHODOLOGY

To answer this question, I conducted a survey utilizing the website, kwiksurveys.com. This was beneficial as it was easy to use, offered many report options, and was free of cost. All of this made it an effective tool for conducting online quantitative research.

While designing the survey, my independent variable was consumption of online news. The dependent variables were propagation of online news, production of online news, and civic participation. While the survey only included a single straight forward inquiry about participation in civic engagement, multiple questions were used to measure participants’ levels of propagation and production of online news content.

The survey was constructed with 15 questions. Of the 15, four served as demographic questions and the remainder related to determining online news consumption patterns. These questions included inquiries about viewing habits, likelihood of interactions with news content, viability of creating news content, and the likelihood of participating in civic engagement. I pretested the questionnaire by doing the survey, myself, and removing my results from the data.

To recruit my candidates, I utilized two online social circles. My first pool of potential participants was my email contacts at Oklahoma Baptist University. This was comprised of approximately 40 college-age students. An email was sent asking for volunteers to complete the survey. The second contact group was via my near 100 Facebook contacts. The majority of those contacts are between the ages of 30-60. Of those two groups, I had 28 participants respond to the survey.

RESEARCH RESULTS

The initial four questions of the survey asked about gender, age, education, and income level. 54% of the respondents were female, with the remaining 46% being male. At 39%, the majority of the participants were between the ages of 18-24 with 55+ being the second largest age demographic, at 18%. The highest education level completed by the bulk respondents, at 46%, was a Highschool Diploma but the remaining 54%, as a whole, had earned some degree of higher education. The annual household incomes of the participants was split evenly with 50% making less than $50,000 and 50% making more than $50,000.

50% of the survey’s participants indicated their primary online news source is a professional media website, such as CNN.com or BBC.com (See Figure 1). Social media was used by 36%. The remaining 14% comprised of apps, citizen journalism, or no response. Regardless of news source, the participants indicated their preference for national and local news at 39% and 37%, respectively (See Figure 2). The rest of the respondents prefered to view topical news, such as sports or entertainment. 89% of the particpants also indicated some likelihood of seeking deeper coverage by watching embedded videos or clicking links to related subject matter.

Figure 1

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Figure 2

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When asked about additional viewing habits, 76% answered they view online news at least once a day with 36% of the total respondents specifying they view more twice a day. The participants were equally divided when asked what device they viewed online news on. 50% utilized PCs and 50% used a mobile device.

The surveyed online news audiences indicated a higher amount will share online news content than will post online comments about it. 61% of the participants said they would, at some level, share the online news content compared to 29% who answered they would post comments on the news stories (See Figure 3). Of that 29%, only one participant indicated they would comment on news content but not propagate it with others.

Figure 3

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In regards to viewing online news on social media, 50% of the respondents favored Facebook, making it the top choice (See Figure 4). The second largest majority, at 29%, used Twitter. Beyond 11% indicating no use of social media for news, the remaining participants indicated using other social media platforms.

Figure 4

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Participants were asked if they created any user-generated news content, such as blogging, taking photos, or shooting video. In addition, they were asked if they ever had online discussions about online news content. 68% responded they do not produce any content or engage in any online disucssions (See Figure 5). The remaining 32% indicated they do take part in creating original online news content and discussing news online.

Figure 5

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The final question asked online news audiences of their level of civic engagement. 54% indicated some level of civic participation with 46% saying they do not. Only one participatn responded they frequently participate with the remainder of the 54% responding they only participate sometimes.

RESEARCH DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

Reviewing the results, there was a significant amount of journalistic participation by the online news consumers. Almost two-thirds of the respondents were active, at some level, in propagating news stories. Nearly a third, were engaged in online news content production or discussions of news stories. Over half the respondents participated in civc engagement. In totality, the results show that this group of online news consumers is very active in contributing to online journalism. The

In comparison to previous articles on the propagation of news, the survey results correlated to findings of how news stories rapidly spread. With 61% of the respondents sharing online content, news stories dramatically increase in viewership due to the high-level of propagation found among online news consumers.

According to the 2014 State of the Media by the Pew Research Center ((Olmstead,Mitchell, Holcomb, & Vogt, 2014), 14% of US adults either post user-generated content or submit to news organizations. My research indicated online news content production by 29% of the participants. With the majority of the respondents being 18-24, it stands to reason that younger online news audiences are more likely to produce original news content.

This study’s primary shortcoming is the participation pool was small and did not accurately reflect current US census data. In addition, the survey was limited to broad definitions of online news consumption and participation. Further research would need to provide a more in-depth analysis to establish a better cross-section of how online news consumers participate in journalism. I believe this is absolutely needed as previous studies only look at individual elements of audiences’ engagement rather than the totality of their behavior.

In conclusion, I found that online news audiences are very engaged with the product. Whether through sharing, creating content, or being motivated to participate, online news viewers show they are capable of more than just consuming. In correlation with past research, my study shows news organizations need to go beyond talking to their viewers and strive to talk with them. The consumers are increasingly becoming the producers and journalism is becoming more open-source.

Referernces

Maireder, A., Schlogl, S. (2014). 24 Hours of an #outcry: The Networked Publics of a Socio-Political Debate. European Journal of Communication, 29(6), 687-702.

Bonilla, Yarimar., Rosa, Jonathan. (2015). #Ferguson: Digital protest, hashtag ethnography, and the racial politics of social media in the United States. American Ethnologist. 42 (1). 4-17.

Al-Rawi, A. (2014). The Arab Spring and Online Protests in Iraq. International Journal of Communication, 8(2014), 916-942.

Maier, S. (2010). All the News Fit to Post? Comparing News Content on the Web to Newspapers, Television, and Radio. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87(3-4), 548-562

Olmstead, Kenneth., Mitchell, Amy., Holcomb, Jesse., Vogt, Nancy. (2014). News Video on the Web: The Audience for Digital News Videos. The Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media. 26 March 2014. Web. 3 April 2015. http://www.journalism.org/2014/03/26/the-audience-for-digital-news-videos/

Karlsson, Michael. Bergstrom, Annika., Clerwall, Christer., Fast, Karin. (2015). Participatory journalism – the (r)evolution that wasn’t. Content and user behavior in Sweden 2007-2013. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.

Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff. (2012). Youtube & News. The Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media. 16 July 2012. Web. 3 April 2015. http://www.journalism.org/2012/07/16/youtube-news/

Bachmann, I., Zuniga, H. (2013). News Platform Preference as a Predictor of Political and Civic Participation. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(4), 496-512.

Kaufhold, K., Valenuela, S., Zuniga, Homero. (2010). Citizen Journalism and Democracy: How User-Generated News Use Relates to Political Knowledge and Participation. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 87(3-4), 515-529

Wolfsfeld, G., Segev, Elad., Sheafer, T. (2013). Social Media and the Arab Spring: Politics Comes First. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 115-137.

Twas the Night Before Spring Semester

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Twas the night before Spring semester when all through the house

Not a creature was stirring except my computer mouse

The syllabi were stacked in my briefcase with care

In hopes that in classrooms students would be there.

The students were nervously fidgeting in their dorms

With visions of quizzes, exams, and add-drop forms.

I pounding the laptop instead of good sleep

As I retype corrupted lesson plans, wanting to weep

When all of a sudden I see an alarm ignored for an hour

My laptop’s charger is missing and I’m low on power.

Away to my briefcase I flew like a flash

Ran into a chair and tripped on my sash

As I fell howling, grasping my knee

I recall I live in Edmond and my charger’s in Shawnee

I scramble back to my bed in a furious rave

Its too late, my computer dead, I forget to save.

Defeated, I pondered upon my unfortunate lots

Oh well, first day of class, I’ll just get them donuts.